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Salts made of calcium and magnesium solved into the water (bicarbonate, carbonate, sulphate, chloride etc.) is the so called "HARDNESS".
Hardness can be temporary or permanent.
Permanent hardness is due to sulphate, chloride and nitrate;
whereas temporary hardness is due to calcium and magnesium carbonates and it is well known as limestone.

Limestone is the reason of many problems such as:
  - delivery capacity reduction of water mains;
  - energetic costs increase for heat exchanger;
  - interruption in the productive cycle due to the acid
    washing of heat exchanger;

Calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, which must be part of the water and exist in nature, are very important elements for human health.
Every time that these salts are in the presence of an impeller, stagnation, water-heaters changes of temperature and heat exchangers they dissociate - as shown by the following formula:

Ca(HCO3)2  CaCO3+ CO2+ H2O

Bicarbonato di calcio 
               Carbonato de calcio + Anidride carbonica + Acqua